Adverbs

ADVE RBS

 

Adjectives modify nouns; adverbs modify verbs.  For instance, in the English phrase walked quickly, quickly is an adverb modifying the verb walk.  Japanese also has adverbs, and as with adjectives, they work differently from English adverbs.  Some linguists call them other names, but most textbooks, ncluding this one, will just call them adverbs

 

Somme Japanese words are pure adverbs, others are adjectives modified to serve as adverbs.  This is also true inEnglish; slow is an adjective – slowly is an adverb.  In Japanese, osoi (slow)  is an adjective; osoku (slowly) is an adverb.

 

Whereas adjectives must come just before the nouns they affect, adverbs can appear almost anywhere in a sentence:

 

Quickly he ran to the store.  

Sugu ni Kare wa mise ni hashitta. 

 

He quickly ran to the store. 

kare wa sugi ni misem ni hashitta..

 

He ran quickly to the store.

he ran to the store quickly.

 

In the last two cases, quickly is not a verb, so it cannot be the last word in the Japanese sentence.

 

Pure Adverbs

 

Here are some common adverbs:

 

Itsurmo – Always

Yoku  often

Taitei  usually

Senzen -   Sometimes

Tamani – rarely

Zenzen -   Not at all 

Takusan – a lot

Chiisai – a little

 

Adverbs from Adjectives

 

Adjectives can be converted to adverbs.  Since there are two types of adjectives, there are two methods.

 

For  adjectives, replace the final  with く.

 

Examples:

English

Adjective

Adverb

Slow/slowly

Osoi

Osoku

Close/closely

Chikai

Chikaku

Hhappy/happily

Ureshii

Uresiku

 

 

For  adjectives, add  after the adjective.

 

English

 adjective

Adverb

Quiet/quietly

Shizuka

Shizuka ni

Polite/politely

Teimei

Teimei ni

Convenient/convenientl

Benri

Benri ni

 

You might recall that the なadjective is followed br na, the adverb form is followed by に.

 

Categories

 

For convenience, adverbs can be grouped into three categories: Time, Place, and How.

 

Time  words like today, now, etc., can be adverbs.  They are not adverbs if they are the topic or subject of the sentence.

 

Today is Monday.

Kyo wa getsyoubi desu.  Kyo is a noun.

 

Kyo mise ni ikimashita.  Kyo is an adverb.

 

Place words like here, there, etc. are adverbs.

 

Method and extent words that modify the verb , like quickly happily, and quietly are adverbs that tell how the verb is executed.

 

Common Adverbs

 

Always

itsumo

Usually

taitei

Often

yoku

Sometimes

tokidoki

Seldom

mettani (+ negative verb)

never, by no means

zenzen

quite, entirely

mattaku

certainly, by all means

kanarazu

absolutely

zettaini

perhaps, probably

tabun

indeed, really

hontouni

completely

sukkari

surely, certainly

kitto

especially

tokuni

extremely, very

totemo

fairly, considerably

kanari

slightly, a bit

chotto

about, approximately

yaku

forever

itsumademo

all the time, by far

zutto

once, before

katsute

not yet, still

mada

soon

sugu

for a while

shibaraku

for the time being

ichiou

anyway, at any rate

tonikaku

now, well, incidentally

tokorode

at first

mazu

next, then

tsugini

finally

saigoni

again, also

mata

suddenly

kyuuni

by chance

guuzenni

just, precisely

choudo

already

mou

more

motto

most

mottomo

fast

hayaku

slowly

yukkuri

increasingly

masumasu

gradually

dandan

at last

yatto

together

isshoni

separately

betsubetsuni

instead

kawarini

quietly

jitto

secretly

sotto

on purpose

wazato

despite one's efforts

sekkaku

if possible

narubeku