Spoken Japanese

SPOKEN JAPANESE

Spoken Japanese

 

There is a specific set of sounds used in Japanese​​ speech. Each is either a vowel sound, or a combination of a consonant and vowel, or the sound of the letter​​ n.​​ 

JAPANESE LANGUAGE SOUNDS

A

FA

JA

MYA

RA

TI

BA

FE

JE

MYO

RE

TO

BE

FI

JI

NA

RI

U

BI

FO

JO

NE

RO

WA

BO

GA

JYA

NI

RYA

WE

BYA

GE

JYO

NO

RYO

WI

BYO

GI

KA

NYA

SA

WO

CHA

GO

KE

NYO

SE

YA

CHI

GYA

KO

O

SHA

YO

CHO

GYO

KYA

PA

SHE

ZA

DA

HA

KYO

PE

SHI

ZE

DE

HE

MA

PI

SHO

ZO

DI

HI

ME

PO

SO

 

DO

HO

MI

PYA

TA

 

E

I

MO

PYO

TE

 

 

The good news is any given sound is always said the same way. There is no "I​​ read​​ the book, now you​​ read​​ the book" in Japanese.​​ See the spelling in​​ kana​​ and you can pronounce it.

Of course, it isn't quite that easy. There are long and short vowels, double consonants, and silent characters.​​ And within Japan, there are several dialects that sound very​​ different.​​ The usage cited herein is generally that heard in Tokyo.

VOWELS​​ 

There are five vowels in the Japanese language. They are:

 

Rhymes with

A

ah

I

tea

U

you

E

way

O

go

 

Where it says "rhymes with", you could add "always". Each of the sounds is said the same way every time.​​ 

Vowels can be short or long. Consider the words​​ oki​​ and​​ ookii. In the first case, the sound of​​ o​​ and​​ i​​ are short. If you spoke​​ oki​​ with a metronome, it would take a count of two -​​ o​​ and​​ ki.​​ 

o

ki

But​​ ookii​​ would take a count of four (two for​​ oo, one for​​ ki, one for the final​​ i)).​​ 

o

o

ki

i

 

These are totally different words -​​ oki​​ means several different things - one is embers - while​​ ookii​​ means big. Yet the only difference is in their pronunciation - the length of the vowels.

Long vowels are said smoothly, that is, you don't say o o, you say o- as one sound but held longer. Think of oh and ooh, but with the same sound.

A long vowel is displayed in various ways. With​​ hira​​ gana, the vowel is written two times:​​ いい​​ (ii). The character o is usually written as​​ おう​​ (ou).​​ With​​ kata kana,​​ a long vowel is followed by a dash:​​ オー​​ (o).​​ And with Romaji it is usually written with a bar over each long vowel (ō).

The vowels​​ i​​ and​​ u​​ are not always sounded. For instance, the common word​​ desu​​ and common verb ending​​ masu​​ are usually pronounced des' and mas' respectively. Similarly, the verb ending​​ mashita​​ is usually pronounced mash'ta.​​ In each case, although no sound is made, the timing is as if the sound is made, and the mouth should be shaped as if it were making the sound

CONSONANTS

The consonants are K G, S, J, Z, T, D, N, H, B, P, M, Y, R, and W. Note that Y is considered to be a consonant.

Notice also that there is no character for the sound of V, Q, L, or C (except as K).​​ These sounds do not occur in Japanese​​ speech

When using foreign words, r is usually used in place of l –​​ and b in place of v.​​ thus​​ erebeetaa​​ (elevator)

A sound that is not in English is​​ tsu.​​ It sounds like the​​ ts​​ in cats​​ plus​​ u​​ as in you.

Most consonants are pronounced the same as in English.​​ Two exceptions are g and r.​​ g is pronounced more like ng, as in ring.​​ R​​ is pronounced more like d – the tongue should touch the roof of the mouth when sounding r.

Consonants may also be stretched, but differently from vowels. With​​ kana, a small​​ tsu​​ character indicates that the following consonant should be stretched:​​ こう​​ (gakkou)​​ in​​ hira gana,​​ ​​ in kata kana. With Romaji, printing the letter twice indicates that it is stretched:​​ gakkou.

Some words are spelled with alternate characters for ease of speech. These are the sounds represented with the tenten (”) or​​ maru​​ (o) in​​ kana.​​ 

They are

 

Can be spelled with

Examples

K

G

kawa/gawa​​ (river)

S

Z

sake/zake​​ alcohol)

T

D

da/ta​​ (rice field)

H

B

hito/bito (person)

H

P

hon/pon​​ (book)

 

That is why there is​​ hira gana​​ and​​ kata kana.​​ Gana​​ and kana mean the same thing.

This dissertation is only an introduction – there are many subtle points that a student can study after mastering this much.​​ 

THE JAPANESE SENTENCE​​ Page​​ 3​​